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    The Mandinka are the descendants of the Mali Empire , which rose to power in the 13th century under the rule of king Sundiata Keita , who founded an empire that would go on to span a large part of West Africa.

    They migrated west from the Niger River in search of better agricultural lands and more opportunities for conquest. Although widespread, the Mandinka constitute the largest ethnic group only in the countries of Mali, Guinea and The Gambia.

    Their traditional society has featured socially stratified castes. Mandinka has been an oral society , where mythologies, history and knowledge are verbally transmitted from one generation to the next.

    Between the 16th and 19th centuries, many Muslim and non-Muslim Mandinka people, along with numerous other African ethnic groups, were captured, enslaved and shipped to the Americas.

    They intermixed with slaves and workers of other ethnicities, creating a Creole culture. The Mandinka people significantly influenced the African heritage of descended peoples now found in Brazil , the Southern United States and, to a lesser extent, the Caribbean.

    This expansion was a part of creating a region of conquest, according to the oral tradition of the Mandinka people. This migration began in the later part of the 13th century.

    Another group of Mandinka people, under Faran Kamara — the son of the king of Tabou — expanded southeast of Mali, while a third group expanded with Fakoli Kourouma.

    With the migration, many gold artisans and metal working Mandinka smiths settled along the coast and in the hilly Fouta Djallon and plateau areas of West Africa.

    Their presence and products attracted Mandika merchants and brought trading caravans from north Africa and the eastern Sahel , states Toby Green — a professor of African History and Culture.

    It also brought conflicts with other ethnic groups, such as the Wolof people , particularly the Jolof Empire. The caravan trade to North Africa and Middle East brought Islamic people into Mandinka people's original and expanded home region.

    In Ghana , for example, the Almoravids had divided its capital into two parts by , one part was Muslim and the other non-Muslim.

    The Muslim influence from North Africa had arrived in the Mandinka region before this, via Islamic trading diasporas.

    Shihab al-Umari , the Arabic historian, described his visit and stated that Musa built mosques in his kingdom, established Islamic prayers and took back Maliki school of Sunni jurists with him.

    The Mandinka people of Mali converted early, but those who migrated to the west did not convert and retained their traditional religious rites.

    One of the legends among the Mandingo of western Africa is that the general Tiramakhan Traore led the migration, because people in Mali had converted to Islam and he did not want to.

    Through a series of conflicts, primarily with the Fula -led jihads under Imamate of Futa Jallon , many Mandinka converted to Islam.

    Slave raiding, capture and trading in the Mandinka regions may have existed in significant numbers before the European colonial era, [25] as is evidenced in the memoirs of the 14th century Moroccan traveller and Islamic historian Ibn Battuta.

    According to Toby Green, selling slaves along with gold was already a significant part of the trans-Saharan caravan trade across the Sahel between West Africa and the Middle East after the 13th century.

    The shipment of slaves by the Portuguese, primarily from the Jolof people, along with some Mandinka, started in the 15th century, states Green, but the earliest evidence of a trade involving Mandinka slaves is from and after CE.

    Slavery grew significantly between the 16th and 19th century. Their slave exports from this region nearly doubled in the second half of the 18th century compared to the first, but most of these slaves disembarked in Brazil.

    Scholars have offered several theories on the source of the transatlantic slave trade of Mandinka people. According to Boubacar Barry, a professor of History and African Studies, chronic violence between ethnic groups such as Mandinka people and their neighbours, combined with weapons sold by slave traders and lucrative income from slave ships to the slave sellers, fed the practice of captives, raiding, manhunts, and slaves.

    Slavery was already an accepted practice before the 15th century. As the demand grew, states Barry, Futa Jallon led by an Islamic military theocracy became one of the centers of this slavery-perpetuating violence, while Farim of Kaabu — or the commander of Mandinka people in Kaabu — energetically hunted slaves on a large scale.

    The historian Walter Rodney states that Mandinka and other ethnic groups already had slaves who inherited slavery by birth, and who could be sold.

    Walter Hawthorne — a professor of African History, states that the Barry and Rodney explanation was not universally true for all of Senegambia and Guinea where high concentrations of Mandinka people have traditionally lived.

    Mandinka are rural subsistence farmers in the Sahel who rely on peanuts , rice , millet , maize , and small-scale husbandry for their livelihood.

    During the wet season , men plant peanuts as their main cash crop. Men also grow millet and women grow rice traditionally, African rice , tending the plants by hand.

    The oldest male is the head of the family and marriages are commonly arranged. Small mud houses with conical thatch or tin roofs make up their villages, which are organised on the basis of the clan groups.

    While farming is the predominant profession among the Mandinka, men also work as tailors, butchers, taxi drivers, woodworkers, metalworkers, soldiers, nurses, and extension workers for aid agencies.

    Some Mandinka syncretise Islam and traditional African religions. Among these syncretists spirits can be controlled mainly through the power of a marabout , who knows the protective formulas.

    In most cases, no important decision is made without first consulting a marabout. Marabouts, who have Islamic training, write Qur'anic verses on slips of paper and sew them into leather pouches talisman ; these are worn as protective amulets.

    The conversion to Islam took place over many centuries. According to Robert Wyndham Nicholls, Mandinka in Senegambia started converting to Islam as early as the 17th century, and most of Mandinka leatherworkers there converted to Islam before the 19th century.

    The Mandinka musicians, however were last, converting to Islam mostly in the first half of the 20th century. Like elsewhere, these Muslims have continued their pre-Islamic religious practices such as their annual rain ceremony and "sacrifice of the black bull" to their past deities.

    Most Mandinkas live in family-related compounds in traditional rural villages. Mandinka villages are fairly autonomous and self-ruled, being led by a council of upper class elders and a chief who functions as a first among equals.

    The Mandinka people have traditionally been a socially stratified society, like many West African ethnic groups with castes.

    The Mandinka castes are hereditary, and marriages outside the caste was forbidden. The Mandinka practice a rite of passage, kuyangwoo , which marks the beginning of adulthood for their children.

    At an age between four and fourteen, the youngsters have their genitalia ritually cut see articles on male and female genital cutting , in separate groups according to their sex.

    In years past, the children spent up to a year in the bush, but that has been reduced now to coincide with their physical healing time, between three and four weeks.

    During this time, they learn about their adult social responsibilities and rules of behaviour. Preparation is made in the village or compound for the return of the children.

    A celebration marks the return of these new adults to their families. As a result of these traditional teachings, in marriage a woman's loyalty remains to her parents and her family; a man's to his.

    The women among the Mandinka people, like other ethnic groups near them, have traditionally practiced female genital mutilation FGM , traditionally referred to as "female circumcision.

    Marriages are traditionally arranged by family members rather than either the bride or groom. This practice is particularly prevalent in the rural areas.

    Kola nuts, a bitter nut from a tree, are formally sent by the suitor's family to the male elders of the bride-to-be, and if accepted, the courtship begins.

    Polygamy has been practiced among the Mandinka since pre-Islamic days. A Mandinka man is legally allowed to have up to four wives, as long as he is able to care for each of them equally.

    Mandinka believe the crowning glory of any woman is the ability to produce children, especially sons. The first wife has authority over any subsequent wives.

    The husband has complete control over his wives and is responsible for feeding and clothing them. He also helps the wives' parents when necessary.

    Wives are expected to live together in harmony , at least superficially. They share work responsibilities of the compound, such as cooking, laundry, and other tasks.

    Mandinka culture is rich in tradition, music, and spiritual ritual. Mandinkas continue a long oral history tradition through stories, songs, and proverbs.

    In rural areas, western education's impact is minimal; the literacy rate in Latin script among these Mandinka is quite low.

    However, more than half the adult population can read the local Arabic script including Mandinka Ajami ; small Qur'anic schools for children where this is taught are quite common.

    Mandinka children are given their name on the eighth day after their birth, and their children are almost always named after a very important person in their family.

    The Mandinka have a rich oral history that is passed down through griots. This passing down of oral history through music has made music one of the most distinctive traits of the Mandinka.

    They have long been known for their drumming and also for their unique musical instrument, the kora. The kora is a twenty-one-stringed West-African harp made out of a halved, dried, hollowed-out gourd covered with cow or goat skin.

    The strings are made of fishing line these were traditionally made from a cow's tendons. It is played to accompany a griot's singing or simply on its own.

    The kora has become the hallmark of traditional Mandinka musicians ". The kora with its 21 strings is made from half a calabash, covered with cow's hide fastened on by decorative tacks.

    The kora has sound holes in the side which are used to store coins offered to the praise singers, in appreciation of their performance.

    The praise singers are called " jalibaas " or "jalis" in Mandinka. Haley claimed he was descended from Kinte, though this familial link has been criticised by many professional historians and at least one genealogist as highly improbable see D.

    Martin R. Delany , a 19th-century abolitionist, military leader, politician and physician in the United States, was of partial Mandinka descent.

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